Hear me out: I truly think a lot of your issues can be traced back to anxiety. It can cause different issues for different people, and it sounds like a lot of your problems can be traced back to a sensitive gastric response to anxiety. For instance, the erosive esophagus can be caused by GERD, and GERD can be caused by anxiety. Bronchitis can be caused by erosive esophagus and GERD. Slightly lowered immune response can be caused by anxiety directly. Esophagus polyp could be caused by damage to esophagus such as can be caused by GERD. IBS can be directly caused by anxiety. Hemorrhoids can be caused by straining due to IBS. Your low levels of cholesterol, proteins and so forth could be caused by IBS. So even though it may seem like you are being smothered by tons of problems, it might actually just be one single problem: chronic anxiety. The kidney being a bit off is pretty common and not harmful if memory serves, and probably not related at all to anxiety. I'm no doctor so I can't say that you don't have other issues as well, but I can say that it sounds like many of your issues are very likely stemming from chronic anxiety, and if you can manage that better then many of your other problems will be easier to manage as well.
Back to your other questions, yeah, they can last for a year; they can last the rest of your life. But they don't necessarily have to be a big deal if you learn how to manage them. Also, the urinary issue can certainly be caused by anxiety, which I know for a fact because I have this as well. I spent a lot of money for unnecessary tests to make sure I didn't have prostate cancer, only to find out that it is a combination of my anxiety and IBS that causes the feeling of urinary urgency (especially bad at night). The same exact nerve that causes you to feel like you can't evacuate your bowels is also the one that causes you to feel like your bladder is full. There is a proven statistically higher instance of this issue among men with IBS. What has helped me is maintaining good posture (seems to keep that nerve from getting aggravated), staying well hydrated, and doing what I can to manage my IBS and anxiety. I also suspect that taking vitamin B can help, though I know of no research to validate this (I only know that vitamin B is helpful in maintaining nerve health, so I figure it can't hurt). This has helped me reduce my urinary urgency to the point where it is rarely a problem anymore, with no need for medication at all. It will sometimes pop up again when my IBS is bad, but otherwise it's rarely an issue at all anymore.