Anxiety can definitely cause these symptoms. I experienced the same thing starting in February of this year. I would get full quickly and have this sensation that the food was just sitting in my stomach like a brick even after the smallest of meals. My doctor assumed it was an acid reflux problem, so she put me on various PPIs which had little effect on the symptoms. One night the discomfort was so bad, and my anxiety at an all-time high because "gastric cancer" came up when I googled my symptoms, that I decided to go to the ER. They did full lab work, an abdominal CT scan, and an abdominal ultrasound. Everything checked out perfectly normal.
For the past month now, I've been on Prozac after accepting that it was probably my anxiety causing the symptoms. The medication, along with daily meditation, have improved my symptoms immensely. I hardly ever get that bloated feeling anymore, and when I do, I notice that it quickly goes away with a few minutes of deep breathing.