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Offline MLB2805

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Natural supplements
« on: January 28, 2014, 09:07:48 PM »
Does anyone on here take natural supplements for anxiety? Does it help? And what do you take? TIA
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Offline insights

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #1 on: January 28, 2014, 10:43:26 PM »
Does anyone on here take natural supplements for anxiety? Does it help? And what do you take? TIA

The only natural treatments with a goodish track record for mild to moderate anxiety are Omega-3 fatty acids/fishoil oil, and exercise. Some of the others may help with very mild anxiety. None will do much for severe anxiety and panic attacks. For these the only treatments that are as effective as antidepressants and benzodiazepines are the cognitive and/or behavioural and/or mindfulness therapies.

Ian
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NOTE: I'm not a doctor, and particularly not yours, so there may be factors I'm unaware of. Therefore all advice is of a general nature and you should consult your doctor before following any of it, especially before changing med doses.

Offline MLB2805

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #2 on: January 29, 2014, 11:41:16 AM »
I saw you posted something before about the fish oil ... I was thinking about trying krill oil. What was the amount that you recommended? I that I saw
You post it somewhere?!
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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #3 on: January 29, 2014, 04:08:22 PM »
I saw you posted something before about the fish oil ... I was thinking about trying krill oil.

At this stage I'm not convinced that krill oil has any advantages over ordinary fishoil apart from making consumers' wallets lighter.

On fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the important fatty acid so chose the brand that has the most. A daily dose of 4 to 6 1,000mg capsules seems to be about right and divide them across the three main meals of the day. Start with only one capsule to avoid diarrhea and increase by one every 3-4 days.

Ian
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NOTE: I'm not a doctor, and particularly not yours, so there may be factors I'm unaware of. Therefore all advice is of a general nature and you should consult your doctor before following any of it, especially before changing med doses.

Offline gouldbergvariations

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #4 on: January 29, 2014, 09:41:11 PM »
Does anyone on here take natural supplements for anxiety? Does it help? And what do you take? TIA

The only natural treatments with a goodish track record for mild to moderate anxiety are Omega-3 fatty acids/fishoil oil, and exercise. Some of the others may help with very mild anxiety. None will do much for severe anxiety and panic attacks. For these the only treatments that are as effective as antidepressants and benzodiazepines are the cognitive and/or behavioural and/or mindfulness therapies.

Ian

This is inaccurate. Niacinamide ( vitamin b 3) is much more effective than omega 3 fatty acids. Works similar to a benzodiazepine. Lots of people turn to Niacinamide when trying to ween off benzos, check out benzo buddies. It's safe, and does not produce dependence. Safety has been demonstrated up to 3 grams daily.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7913840
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8588246


Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 20, No. 3, 2005

Serotonin Synthesis

Another biochemical reason for niacinamide’s anxiolytic effects might have to do with the vital role that it has upon the synthesis of serotonin.

For example, in a patient with anorexia nervosa an insufficient supply of vitamin B3 or protein resulted in reduced urinary levels of the serotonin breakdown product, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid (5-HIAA).32 The authors of this report postulated that a deficiency of vitamin B3 reduced the feedback inhibition upon the kynurenine pathway, resulting in more tryptophan being diverted to the kynurenine pathway, making less substrate available for the synthesis of serotonin.

By contrast, the use of pharmacological doses of vitamin B3 can increase the production of serotonin.33 In a rat study, the administration of 20 mg of niacin resulted in increased levels of 5-HIAA and decreased levels of xanthurenic acid via the kynurenine pathway.34 Taking pharmacological doses of niacinamide (or any other form of vitamin B3) would increase the production of serotonin, by diverting more tryptophan to become substrate for serotonin synthesis. Niacinamide’s therapeutic ability to increase serotonin production might explain why it was successful in reducing the anxiety symptoms of the three patients"




Excess nicotinamide increases plasma serotonin and histamine levels.

Tian YJ, Li D, Ma Q, Gu XY, Guo M, Lun YZ, Sun WP, Wang XY, Cao Y, Zhou SS.

Source

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China; Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Dalian University, Dalian 116001, China; College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, China; Department of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China. E-mail: zhouss@dlu.edu.cn.


Abstract


Methylation, a methyl group-consuming reaction, plays a key role in the degradation (i.e., inactivation) of monoamine neurotransmitters, including catecholamines, serotonin and histamine. Without labile methyl groups, the methylation-mediated degradation cannot take place. Although high niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) intake, which is very common nowadays, is known to deplete the body's methyl-group pool, its effect on monoamine-neurotransmitter degradation is not well understood. The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of excess nicotinamide on the levels of plasma serotonin and histamine in healthy subjects. Urine and venous blood samples were collected from nine healthy male volunteers before and after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide. Plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide, urinary N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and plasma betaine levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma concentrations of choline, serotonin and histamine were measured using commercial kits. The results showed that the plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide level and the urinary excretion of 2-Py significantly increased after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide, which was accompanied with a decrease in the methyl-group donor betaine. Compared with those before nicotinamide load, five-hour postload plasma serotonin and histamine levels significantly increased. These results suggest that excess nicotinamide can disturb monoamine-neurotransmitter metabolism. These findings may be of significance in understanding the etiology of monoamine-related mental diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism (a neurodevelopmental disorder).

http://www.actaps.com.cn/qikan/manage/wenzhang/2013-1-05.pdf



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Offline MLB2805

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #5 on: January 29, 2014, 10:15:17 PM »
I have read this
Before as well. I am taking a b complex but this is different ...
Not sure what to buy though ...
Currently trying to wean off a benzo (klonopin) as
Well... Any suggestions on what to get?
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Offline gouldbergvariations

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #6 on: January 29, 2014, 10:25:36 PM »
Niacinamide capsules, come in 500 mg from now brand. I would also suggest beginning vitamin c supplementation. Especially since you are coming off benzos, these are just a few studies showing effectiveness of vitamin c for a different variety of drug withdrawals and dependencies . But not just for coming off benzos, Vitamin c is the cheapest and single best supplement you can take for health maintenance and prevention. There are thousands of scientific studies showing it's effects on a wide variety of different pathologies. I recommend looking up dr cathcart titration to bowel tolerance limit , Frederick klenner's research , thomas levy , linus pauling! Steve hickey and hilary Roberts for further information on dosage and such.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10836211
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2852062/


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jps.3030301201/abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3913164
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Offline insights

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #7 on: January 29, 2014, 10:29:32 PM »
Excess nicotinamide increases plasma serotonin

Which might be great if serotonin deficiency was the cause of anxiety and depression. It isn't. In fact, increasing serotonin heightens anxiety as many experience when they start taking antidepressants, so it is fortunate that after a few weeks antidepressants substantially drive down serotonin synthesis and expression in areas of the brain which mediate anxiety, though this is not what produces the therapeutic effect, it is only a byproduct of the process.

Furthermore, plasma serotonin levels can be elevated by a number of factors unrelated to what is happening in the brain. It makes and uses less than 2% of the body's serotonin. About another 2% occurs in the skin, blood vessels and blood platelets, but most, around 95%, is synthesized and used by the complex nervous system controlling the gut. The extra niacinamide may well be having an effect on the gut to which it responds by expressing more serotonin, but this will have little if any effect on the brain. It is perhaps no coincidence that the most common niacinamide side-effects, diarrhea and stomach upset, occasionally vomiting, are gut related. These are also common initial SSRI side-effects too.

PS: Consult your doctor before niacinamide if you have bleeding problems (low platelets), diabetes, gout, kidney disease, liver disease, have a history of stomach problems/ulcers, or are pregnant. For diabetics, be aware that it can substantially raise blood glucose levels.

Ian
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NOTE: I'm not a doctor, and particularly not yours, so there may be factors I'm unaware of. Therefore all advice is of a general nature and you should consult your doctor before following any of it, especially before changing med doses.

Offline gouldbergvariations

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #8 on: January 29, 2014, 10:45:33 PM »
The effects on serotonin are specifically cited in this study as occurring in the cerebral cortex
"Studies of neurotransmitter uptake and release by isolated rats brain cortex synaptosomes demonstrated that [2-14C]serotonin uptake was by 41% lower in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as compared to control. The [U-14C]GABA uptake was considerably elevated. [2-14C]serotonin and [U-14C]GABA release from the neurotransmitter pre-loaded synaptosomes showed significant elevation, especially during the first 3 minutes. Nicotinamide (NAm) administration (200 mg/kg body weight daily, 14 days) to diabetic rats restored synaptosomal serotonin uptake up to control levels, while the GABA uptake tended to decrease in diabetic rats. With this dose of NAm the partial restoration of serotonin and GABA release was achieved. The modulating effect of in vivo administered NAm acts via NAD which binds specifically with synaptic membranes. It has been shown that brain NAD(P)/NAD(P)H decreased while sorbitol level increased in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as compared to control. The NAm administration to diabetic rats is accompanied by the increase of NAD(P)/NAD(P)H and the reduction of brain sorbitol level. Data obtained confirm the important role of NAm in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathies."


also, you never addressed this abstract
In the experiment and clinics, psychotropic effect of nicotinamide (tranquilized and nootropic activity) has been established. It has been shown that nicotinamide in conflict situation has anxiolytic effect, increase aggressive reaction threshold, decrease the quantity of induced fights during interspecies' incompatibility modelling.

So I am not really sure how you can disregard the efficacy of niacinamide for anxiety.
might as well drop a few more here
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6101294

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6125374

As the first article in this post stated niacinamide capable of restoring serotonin and GABA partially or all the way to control levels. The other link shows niacinamide as an endogenous ligand acting on target receptors in a similar manner as benzodiazepines. serotonin controversy aside , therapeutic effect is seen in Niacinamide a ability to bind to the benzodiazepine complex " ( GABA receptor / chloride channel) producing the inhibitory and anxiety therapeutic effects .

do you have any sources which state increased serotonin levels do not produce a therapeutic effect? Also would like to see a source stating serotonin deficiency isn't a cause of anxiety or depression?

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #9 on: January 29, 2014, 11:36:00 PM »
also, you never addressed this abstract
In the experiment and clinics, psychotropic effect of nicotinamide (tranquilized and nootropic activity) has been established. It has been shown that nicotinamide in conflict situation has anxiolytic effect, increase aggressive reaction threshold, decrease the quantity of induced fights during interspecies' incompatibility modelling.

Yes, it is a assertion which may, or may not be of interest. Almost all the data supporting nicotinamide comes from a handful of Russia sources. It is interesting, but without placebo controlled studies in humans I'm not about to recommend it when there are other supplements which do have such evidence.

Quote
do you have any sources which state increased serotonin levels do not produce a therapeutic effect?

I suggest you read the studies I link to in the serotonin myth page. If you believe increased serotonin in the synapses, or increased synthesis and expression produces the therapeutic effect then you need to explain why it usually takes 3-12 weeks for the antidepressant therapeutic effect to begin when serotonin reuptake starts within about 30 minutes of the first pill, the effectiveness of tianeptine, an antidepressant which enhances serotonin reuptake, and the fact that serotonin synthesis and expression drops after a few weeks when taking antidepressants and this usually happens either before or around the time the med kicks-in (which does not mean the drop is the cause of the therapeutic response).

The most likely cause of anxiety and depression is the loss of brain cells in the two hippocampi as a result of chronic stress hormone exposure, particularly of cortisol, which directly kill neurons and prevent new ones from budding off and growing. They also 'prune' neuronal axons and synapses which reduces the number and strength of the interconnections between brain cells. Antidepressants reverse this loss by encouraging neurogenesis in the hippocampi and greater innervation between neurons. There is evidence that Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA, also encourage hippocampal neurogenesis, as there is for exercise. AFAIK, there is none for nicotinamide.

Ian

 

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NOTE: I'm not a doctor, and particularly not yours, so there may be factors I'm unaware of. Therefore all advice is of a general nature and you should consult your doctor before following any of it, especially before changing med doses.

Offline gouldbergvariations

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #10 on: January 30, 2014, 12:14:43 AM »
Does it surprise you there are no placebo trials, where would this non patentable funding come from, hmmm? Either way, nicotinamide is an endogenous ligand for GABA receptor /benzodiazepine complex which anxiolytic sedative effects are similar to a benzodiazepine. The molecular biology has been presented, just because there are no placebo trials doesn't mean it's ineffective for anxiety. If you'd like, you can go wade through the hundreds of anecdotes on numerous forums. Its also interesting that you promote benzodiazepine usage whilst backing a neurogenesis themed treatment. Benzodiazepines impair neurogenesis.



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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #11 on: January 30, 2014, 02:29:22 AM »
Does it surprise you there are no placebo trials, where would this non patentable funding come from, hmmm?

Fishoil and exercise aren't patentable either, yet there are lots of studies showing they work and how they work.

Quote
Either way, nicotinamide is an endogenous ligand for GABA receptor /benzodiazepine complex which anxiolytic sedative effects are similar to a benzodiazepine.


But does it work that way in practice?  Some of the people promoting nicotinamide are also promoting another Russian idea, Picamilon (nicotinoyl-GABA), supposedly GABA in a form which crosses the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), with studies of similar quality supporting it. The only problem is that the whole rationale for it is deeply flawed. It isn't necessary and can't work as advertised.

Firstly, not only does no functioning brain lack GABA, which is a byproduct of the Krebs/citric acid cycle that fuels the brain and is so abundant that the blood-brain-barrier has billions of tiny pumps to remove the excess. The problem isn't a lack of GABA, but a lack of benzo-GABA binding sites and those that exist are less sensitive than normal. Throwing more GABA at them is akin to filling a gas tank to overflowing because the sparkplugs don't work.

Secondly, GABA analogue pharmaceuticals such a gabapentin and pregabalin which do the same thing have almost no impact on GABA, affecting the glutamate system instead. Some people do achieve worthwhile results when taking them, but most don't IME.  The odds of GABA molecules from outside a synapse having any impact on neuro transmission across that synapse is vanishingly small even if it was released by an adjacent synapse.

Quote
If you'd like, you can go wade through the hundreds of anecdotes on numerous forums.

Just as I can find thousands of anecdotes supporting homeopathy preparations, including from the Queen of Britain who is a great believer. They prove nothing. The placebo effect sees many feeling an improvement even when taking homeopathy's distilled water and alcohol. More than enough to have a very profitable business.

Quote
Its also interesting that you promote benzodiazepine usage whilst backing a neurogenesis themed treatment. Benzodiazepines impair neurogenesis.

Yes, they do impair neurogenesis. And I do suggest benzodiazepines despite this. Because they are the lesser of two evils. I'd much rather see someone take benzodiazepines to help them cope with the heightened anxiety produced when antidepressants initially enhance serotonin activity even if it slows the onset of the therapeutic response a little than see them stop taking the med. It is an unfortunate fact of life that most of those prescribed antidepressants stop taking them before they begin to work because of the side-effects, especially the anxiety.

Secondly, while I discourage using benzodiazepines as first line daily anti anxiety meds, some people simply cannot tolerate antidepressants for a variety of reasons, and for them benzodiazepines are better than having nothing.

Then there is the third category of people who only need help with occasional anxiety. For them benzodiazepines are a better bet than taking antidepressants daily. In that role they work well and have few side-effects.

Ian
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NOTE: I'm not a doctor, and particularly not yours, so there may be factors I'm unaware of. Therefore all advice is of a general nature and you should consult your doctor before following any of it, especially before changing med doses.

Offline gouldbergvariations

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #12 on: January 30, 2014, 09:28:30 PM »
Lol... As I said before, the physiological functions of niacinamide have been studied . It is an anti anxiolytic. This isn't some random snake oil bullshit that Has no research backing it as you seem to be suggesting. Please pay attention to the research cited , because you continually fail to acknowledge this.

Everything you are saying is purely subjective . I have posted research backing my claims, where are yours? That's right , you don't have any. You have absolutely no basis to deny any of nicotinamides function in the brain because you have no studies suggesting this. Find me studies that suggest niacinamide doesn't have any anxiolytic effects. If you cannot supply any , then there really is point in continuing to post your own untested and unscientific beliefs.On the contrary the opposite is shown.

http://orthomolecular.org/library/jom/2005/pdf/2005-v20n03-p167.pdf

Research presented has shown that niacinamide does have anxiolytic effects and does impact GABA and serotonin levels in the brain. Niacinamide has a similar action as benzodiazepines, but do not produce dependence or have the negative long term effects associated with benzodiazepine usage.
You want to discredit niacinamide, have research to back up your claims otherwise don't post trying to discredit it when you lack sources.
I'll just wait while you find the research to support your beliefs that niacinamide doesn't have anxiolytic or therapeutic properties.
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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #13 on: January 30, 2014, 10:45:19 PM »
Please pay attention to the research cited , because you continually fail to acknowledge this.

I have read it, and I'm not persuaded that it is that robust. About the only research that shows it might have significant affect on benzodiazepine-GABA complex binding sites has been on seizures and then only when administered in large doses by injection.

Quote
Research presented has shown that niacinamide does have anxiolytic effects

The Russian research makes assertions without any robust, i.e. randomized, double blind, placebo control data supporting it.  If you have some, please post it.

Quote
and does impact GABA and serotonin levels in the brain.

Which indicates nothing. Again, no brain lacks GABA. It isn't the problem, the number and sensitivity of BZD-GABA binding sites is [1]. If I remove half the spark plugs in your car will filling the gas tank to overflowing get the engine to run smoothly?

As for serotonin, increasing serotonin increases anxiety, as the millions that have experienced it when first taking serotonergic antidepressants will testify. Serotonergic antidepressants decrease serotonin. Antidepressants such as tianeptine which enhance the removal of serotonin from synapses work at least as well as those that inhibit its removal. The therapeutic effects of antidepressants do not rely on their affect on serotonin levels.

Ian


References:

[1]
Hasler G, Nugent AC, Carlson PJ, et al. (2008)
Altered cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder determined by [11C]flumazenil positron emission tomography.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. Oct;65(10):1166-75 (Abstract)

Geuze E, van Berckel BN, Lammertsma AA, et al. (2007)
Reduced GABAA benzodiazepine receptor binding in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.
Mol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;13(1):74-83 (Abstract)

Cameron OG, Huang GC, Nichols T, et al. (2007)
Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-benzodiazepine binding sites in insular cortex of individuals with panic disorder.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. Jul;64(7):793-800. (Abstract)

Bremner JD, Innis RB, Southwick SM, et al. (2000)
"Decreased benzodiazepine receptor binding in prefrontal cortex in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder."
Am J Psychiatry Jul; vol 157(7):1120-6 (Abstract)

Bremner JD, Innis RB, White T, et al (2000)
"SPECT [I-123]iomazenil measurement of the benzodiazepine receptor in panic disorder."
Biol Psychiatry  Jan 15; vol 47(2):96-106 (Abstract)

Malizia AL.  (1999)
"What do brain imaging studies tell us about anxiety disorders? "
J Psychopharmacol Dec; vol 13(4):372-8 (Abstract)

Morimoto K. 1999
Benzodiazepine receptor imaging in the brain: recent developments and clinical validity
Kaku Igaku. May;36(4):307-13. (Abstract)

Malizia AL, Cunningham VJ, Bell CJ, et al. (1998)
"Decreased brain GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder: preliminary results from a quantitative PET study."
Arch Gen Psychiatry Aug; vol 55(8):715-20 (Abstract)

Tokunaga M, Ida I, Higuchi T, Mikuni M. (1997)
"Alterations of benzodiazepine receptor binding potential in anxiety and somatoform disorders measured by 123I-iomazenil SPECT."
Radiat Med May-Jun; vol 15(3):163-9 (Abstract)

Uchiyama M, Sue H, Fukumitsu N, et al. (1997)
"Assessment of cerebral benzodiazepine receptor distribution in anxiety disorders by 123I-iomazenil-SPECT: comparison to cerebral perfusion scintigraphy by 123I-IMP."
Nippon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi Jan; vol 57(1):41-6 (Abstract)




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NOTE: I'm not a doctor, and particularly not yours, so there may be factors I'm unaware of. Therefore all advice is of a general nature and you should consult your doctor before following any of it, especially before changing med doses.

Offline gouldbergvariations

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Re: Natural supplements
« Reply #14 on: January 30, 2014, 11:05:04 PM »
Since you didn't read the last study I posted I will summarize a few abstracts. Still waiting on your sources which discredit niacinamide.

"patientwith anorexia nervosa an insufficient sup-ply of vitamin B3 or protein resulted in re-duced urinary levels of the serotonin break-down product, 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid(5-HIAA).32 The authors of this report pos-tulated that a deficiency of vitamin B3 re-duced the feedback inhibition upon thekynurenine pathway, resulting in more tryp-tophan being diverted to the kynureninepathway, making less substrate available forthe synthesis of serotonin. By contrast, theuse of pharmacological doses of vitamin B3can increase the production of serotonin.33In a rat study, the administration of 20 mgof niacin resulted in increased levels of 5-HIAA and decreased levels of xanthurenicacid via the kynurenine pathway.34 Taki ngpharmacological doses of niacinamide (orany other form of vitamin B3) would increasethe production of serotonin, by divertingmore tryptophan to become substrate forserotonin synthesis"2. Judd LE, Poskitt BL: Pellagra in a patient with aneating disorder. Br J Dermatol, 1991;125:71-72.
33. Gedye A: Hypothesized treatment for migraineusing low doses of tryptophan, niacin, calcium,caffeine, and acetylsalicylic acid. Med Hypoth-eses, 2001;56:91-94.
34. Shibata Y, Nishimoto Y, Takeuchi F, Tatsuma Y:Tryptophan metabolism in various nutritive con-ditions. Acta Vitamin Enzymol, 1973; 29: 190

"Niacinamide modulated spinal cord activity, and had anticonflict, an-ticonvulsant, muscle relaxing and hypnotic effects. The potency of ni-acinamide was found to be equivalent to a highly potent benzodiazepine.Niacinamide had a low affinity to the benzodiazepine-binding site inthe mammalian brain. This low affinity may have been the result of thebinding assay used, or it may have been a reflection that more than onebinding-site existed by which niacinamide exerted its benzodiazepine-like properties."
. Möhler H, Polc C, Cumin R, Pieri L, Kettler R:Nicotinamide is a brain constituent withbenzodiazepine-like actions. Nature, 1979; 278:563-565.

"Niacinamide antagonized the effects of diazepam, therefore interactingwith the benzodiazepine receptor in vivo. However, niacinamide did notmimic the benzodiazepine properties of diazepam when tested withthe rat head-turning model. Niacinamide probably does havebenzodiazepine-like properties at different benzodiazepine receptor sitesin the CNS, but its effects are unrelated to the actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)."Slater P,  Longman DA:  Effects of diazepam andmuscimol on GABA-mediated neurotrans-mission: interactions with inosine and nicoti-namide. Life Sci, 1979; 25: 1963-1967.


"Niacinamide had a qualitatively similar effect to that of diazepam. It wasconcluded that niacinamide exerted its effects by influencing the turnoverof serotonin, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), dopamine and GABA in thoseareas of the brain thought to be unbalanced in anxiety." Kennedy B, Leonard BE: Similarity between theaction of nicotinamide and diazepam on neu-rotransmitter metabolism in the rat. BiochemSoc Trans, 1980; 8: 59-60.



"Niacinamide could possibly be a competitive antagonist for thebenzodiazepine receptor since it prevented the binding of kynurenineto the benzodiazepine receptor. It was further postulated that this ac-tion was more likely of central origin than peripheral origin. It couldnot be determined if niacinamide’s action was indeed related to itsoccupation of the benzodiazepine receptor."
28. Lapin IP: Nicotinamide, inosine and hypoxan-thine, putative endogenous ligands of thebenzodiazepine receptor, opposite to diazepamare much more effective against kynurenine-induced seizures than against pentylenetetra-zol-induced seizures. Pharmacol BiochemBehav, 1981; 14: 589-593.


"Niacinamide was structurally dissimilar to the benzodiazepine receptors.Niacinamide did not act as a specific ligand for the benzodiazepinereceptor, but instead had a weak binding affinity for the receptor."

Markin RS, Murray WJ: Searching for the en-dogenous benzodiazepine using the graph theo-retical approach. Pharm Res, 1988;5:408-412.

"
Niacinamide and its analogs possessed properties similar tobenzodiazepines at various zones of the cerebral cortex by influencingthe GABA-ergic system."
"30. Akhundov RA, Dzhafarova SA, Aliev AN: Thesearch for new anticonvulsant agents based onnicotinamide. Eksp Klin Farmakol, 1992;55:27-29.



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