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Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to cure or improve psychological and behavioral problems in humans. The commonest form of psychotherapy is direct personal contact between therapist and patient, mainly in the form of talking. Because sensitive topics are often discussed during psychotherapy, therapists are expected, and usually legally bound, to respect patient privacy and client confidentiality.

Schools and approaches

Psychoanalysis was the earliest form of psychotherapy, but many other theories and techniques are now used by psychotherapists, psychologists, psychiatrists, personal growth facilitators and social workers. Techniques for group therapy have been developed.

While behaviour is often a target of the work, many approaches value the notion of "psyche" in the root of the word. This is especially true of the psychodynamic schools of psychotherapy, which today include Jungian therapy and Psychodrama. Other approaches focus on the link between the mind and body and try to access deeper levels of the psyche through manipulation of the physical body. Examples are Rolfing, Pulsing and Postural Integration.

A distinction can also be made between those psychotherapies that employ a medical model and those that employ a humanistic model. In the medical model the client is seen as unwell and the therapist employs their skill to help them back to health. An example would be Freudian psychotherapy. In the humanistic model the therapist facilitates learning in the individual and the clients own natural process draws them to a fuller understanding of themselves. An example would be Gestalt therapy.

Cognitive behavioural therapy is particularly common where the mode of psychotherapy is dictated by the demands of insurance companies who wish to see a financially limited commitment.

A computer program called ELIZA has been built to perform an automated and extremely simplified version of Rogerian psychotherapy.

List of psychotherapies

In the 20th century many psychotherapies appeared in western societies. The following is an incomplete list:

* Analytical psychology

* Art Therapy

* Autogenic psychotherapy

* Behavior therapy

* Biodynamic psychotherapy

* Bioenergetic analysis

* Biosynthesis

* Brief therapy

* Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy

* Co-Counselling

* Cognitive analytic psychotherapy

* Cognitive behavioural psychotherapy

* Concentrative movement therapy

* Core process psychotherapy

* Daseins analytic psychotherapy

* Depth Psychology

* Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT)

* Encounter groups

* Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)

* Existential analysis

* Family systems therapy

* Focusing

* Freudian psychotherapy

* Gestalt therapy

* Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy

* Group therapy

* Holotropic Breathwork

* Humanistic psychology

* Hypnotherapy

* Integrative Psychotherapy

* Jungian psychotherapy

* Logotherapy

* Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)

* Person centred psychotherapy

* Personal construct psychology (PCP)

* Positive psychotherapy

* Postural integration

* Primal integration

* Process Oriented Psychology

* Primal therapy

* Provocative therapy

* Psychedelic psychotherapy

* Psychoanalysis

* Psychodrama

* Psychodynamic psychotherapy

* Psycho-Organic analysis

* Psychosynthesis

* Pulsing (bodywork)

* Rational emotive behaviour psychotherapy

* Reichian psychotherapy

* Rogersian (or Rogerian) psychotherapy

* Rolfing

* Sophia analysis

* Self Relationship (or Sponsorship)

* Systemic therapy

* T Groups

* Transactional analysis (TA)

* Transpersonal psychotherapy

List of techniques used in psychotherapy

The following techniques may be employed in psychotherapy although which are used will depend on the nature of the therapy

* Art work

* Dance movement therapy

* Catharsis

* Coaching

* Dream analysis and interpretation

* Empathy

* Hot seat

* Hypnosis

* Journal work

* Massage

* Minimal Encouragers

* Paradoxical intention

* Reflective Listening

* Regression

* Role play

* Sand play

* Unconditional positive regard

* Validation

* Working through Projections

* Working through Transference

The information above is not intended for and should not be used as a substitute for the diagnosis and/or treatment by a licensed, qualified, health-care professional. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It incorporates material originating from the Wikipedia article "Psychotherapy".

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